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    Transfection of Small Noncoding RNAs into Arabidopsis thaliana Protoplasts

    Polyethylene glycol transfection of plant protoplasts represents an efficient method to incorporate foreign DNA and study transient gene expression. Here, we describe an optimized protocol to deliver small non...

    Stéphanie Lalande, Marjorie Chery, Elodie Ubrig, Guillaume Hummel in RNA Tagging (2020)

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    Retroviral Gene Transduction into T Cell Progenitors for Analysis of T Cell Development in the Thymus

    手机体育投注平台 The thymus is an organ where T cells develop throughout life. Using mice as a model animal, molecular mechanisms of intrathymic T cell development have been studied. Fetal thymus organ culture technique enable...

    Ryunosuke Muro, Hiroshi Takayanagi, Takeshi Nitta in T-Cell Receptor Signaling (2020)

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    Radioisotope-Based Protocol for Determination of Central Carbon Metabolism in T Cells

    手机体育投注平台 T lymphocytes are the major components of the adaptive immune system. It’s been known that T cells are able to engage a diverse range of metabolic programs to meet the metabolic demands during their life cycle...

    Xuyong Chen, John William Sherman, Ruoning Wang in T-Cell Receptor Signaling (2020)

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    An Improved Leaf Protoplast System for Highly Efficient Transient Expression in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)

    As a robust perennial C4-type monocot plant and a native species to North America, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum手机体育投注平台) has been evaluated and designated as a strong candidate bioenergy crop by the U.S. DOE. Although g...

    Chien-Yuan Lin, Hui Wei, Bryon S. Donohoe in Metabolic Pathway Engineering (2020)

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    TRAP-SEQ of Eukaryotic Translatomes Applied to the Detection of Polysome-Associated Long Noncoding RNAs

    手机体育投注平台 Translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) technology allows the isolation of polysomal complexes and the RNAs associated with at least one 80S ribosome. TRAP consists of the stabilization and affinity ...

    Soledad Traubenik, Flavio Blanco, María Eugenia Zanetti, Mauricio A. Reynoso in RNA Tagging (2020)

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    Investigating T Cell Receptor Signals In Situ by Two-Photon Microscopy of Thymocytes Expressing Genetic Reporters in Low-Density Chimeras

    T cell development is a dynamic process accompanied by extensive thymocyte migration, cellular interactions, and T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. In particular, thymic selection processes that ensure a functio...

    Marilaine Fournier, Mengqi Dong, Heather J. Melichar in T-Cell Receptor Signaling (2020)

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    Detection, Expansion, and Isolation of Human MAIT Cells

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a novel subset of innate-like T cells that recognize vitamin B metabolites from a range of microbes presented by MHC class I-related molecules (MR1). The term mu...

    Yu Liu, Wei Wang, Xiongwen Wu, Xiufang Weng in T-Cell Receptor Signaling (2020)

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    Exploration of T-Cell Diversity Using Mass Cytometry

    T-cell diversity is multifactorial and includes variability in antigen specificity, differentiation, function, and cell-trafficking potential. Spectral overlap limits the ability of traditional flow cytometry ...

    Kaitlin C. O’Boyle, Takuya Ohtani, Sasikanth Manne in T-Cell Receptor Signaling (2020)

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    Bacterial Differential Expression Analysis Methods

    RNA-Seq examines global gene expression to provide insights into cellular processes, and it can be particularly informative when comparing contrasting physiological states or strains. Although relatively routi...

    Sagar Utturkar, Asela Dassanayake, Shilpa Nagaraju in Metabolic Pathway Engineering (2020)

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    Live-Cell Imaging and Analysis of Nuclear Body Mobility

    The cell nucleus contains different domains and nuclear bodies, whose position relative to each other inside the nucleus can vary depending on the physiological state of the cell. Changes in the three-dimensio...

    Dmitry V. Sorokin, Eugene A. Arifulin, Yegor S. Vassetzky, Eugene V. Sheval in The Nucleus (2020)

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    Manipulation of Bacterial Signaling Using Engineered Histidine Kinases

    手机体育投注平台 Two-component systems allow bacteria to respond to changes in environmental or cytosolic conditions through autophosphorylation of a histidine kinase (HK) and subsequent transfer of the phosphate group to its ...

    Kimberly A. Kowallis, Samuel W. Duvall, Wei Zhao in Histidine Phosphorylation (2020)

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    Simultaneous Measurement of Surface Proteins and Gene Expression from Single Cells

    Single-cell transcriptomic analysis has become a new and powerful tool to study complex multicellular systems. Single-cell RNA sequencing provides an unbiased classification of heterogeneous cellular states at...

    Jiadi Luo, Carla A. Erb, Kong Chen in T-Cell Receptor Signaling (2020)

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    Visualizing Chromatin Modifications in Isolated Nuclei

    手机体育投注平台 Modifications in chromatin structure are traditionally monitored by biochemical assays that provide average measurements of static events in a population of cells. Microscopy provides a method by which single ...

    Yuan Li, Zachary Klase, Luca Sardo in The Nucleus (2020)

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    Optimized Detection of Protein-Protein and Protein-DNA Interactions, with Particular Application to Plant Telomeres

    手机体育投注平台 Characterization of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions is critical to understand mechanisms governing the biology of cells. Here we describe optimized methods and their mutual combinations for this p...

    Šárka Schořová, Jiří Fajkus, Petra Procházková Schrumpfová in The Nucleus (2020)

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    Empirical Evidence of Cellular Histidine Phosphorylation by Immunoblotting Using pHis mAbs

    手机体育投注平台 Immunoblotting is a ubiquitous immunological technique that aids in detecting and quantifying proteins (including those of lower abundance) and their posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation, ac...

    Rajasree Kalagiri, Kevin Adam, Tony Hunter in Histidine Phosphorylation (2020)

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    CRISPR/Cas9-Based Genetic Screening to Study T-Cell Function

    手机体育投注平台 T-cell-based cancer immunotherapies have emerged as a promising approach for cancer treatment, highlighting the importance of understanding the regulation of T-cell function. However, the molecular mechanisms ...

    Wanjing Shang, Fei Wang, Qi Zhu, Liangyu Wang, Haopeng Wang in T-Cell Receptor Signaling (2020)

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    Studying Proton Gradients Across the Nuclear Envelope

    手机体育投注平台 The existence of nuclear pore complexes in the nuclear envelope has led to the assumption that ions move freely from the cytosol into the nucleus, and that the molecular mechanisms at the plasma membrane that ...

    Raul Martínez-Zaguilán, Souad R. Sennoune in The Nucleus (2020)

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    Analysis of a Nuclear Intrinsically Disordered Proteome

    手机体育投注平台 Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) play crucial roles in cell functioning, although they do not possess defined three-dimensional architecture. They are highly abundant in the cell nucleus, and the vast ...

    Bozena Skupien-Rabian, Urszula Jankowska, Sylwia Kedracka-Krok in The Nucleus (2020)

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    A Short Historical Perspective of Methods in Inositol Phosphate Research

    The multitudinous inositol phosphate family elicits a wide range of molecular effects that regulate countless biological responses. In this review, I provide a methodological viewpoint of the manner in which k...

    Stephen B. Shears in Inositol Phosphates (2020)

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    Utilizing Drift Tube Ion Mobility Spectrometry for the Evaluation of Metabolites and Xenobiotics

    Metabolites and xenobiotics are small molecules with a molecular weight that often falls below 600 Da. Over the last few decades, multiple small molecule databases have been curated listing structures, masses,...

    Melanie T. Odenkirk, Erin S. Baker in Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry (2020)

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